An analysis of the origins of female genital mutilation

The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue. FGM is defined by the WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".

Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men.

Urine may collect underneath the scar, leaving the area under the skin constantly wet, which can lead to infection and the formation of small stones. While the term infibulation has its roots in ancient Rome, where female slaves had fibulae broochs pierced through their labia to prevent them from getting pregnant, a widespread assumption places the origins of female genital cutting in pharaonic Egypt.

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: The Secret World of Women as Seen by Men

This infibulated scar covers the urethra and most of the introitus, leaving a small hole for urination and menses. According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood lossas well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirthperhaps because of a long second stage of labour.

A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III.

Whilst these girls and women will need specific medical care for decades to come, prevention is an urgent step. Prevalence proportions were compared with Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate.

Over million women and girls are thought to be living with FGM in those 30 countries. Where this process is successful, the social status and marriage prospects of young girls are not damaged as they could be if their families acted alone.

The cutting is often done without anaesthetic, in conditions that risk potentially fatal infection - often using scissors, razor blades, broken glass and tin can lids. The sample was composed predominantly of young men, their mean age being It probably originated in sub-saharan Africa, and was adopted here later on," Salima Ikram, professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, told Discovery News.

This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. Third-degree laceration tearsanal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women. Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation.

Variables The five socio-demographic variables comprised occupation agriculture, livestock, and fishery sector; services sector; health professionals; education professionals; studentsage, ethnic group Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, Djola, Serahule, and Sererreligion Muslim, Christianand marital status married, single.

The earliest record of the custom was made by Strabo, the Greek geographer and historian who reported excision on Egyptian girls in 25BC. An analysis of the origins of female genital mutilation 30 Mart Mace, who is An analysis of the concept of god proof by aquinas very anxious, makes her preambles without preamble.

In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at In Egypt, most of the cutting is undertaken by trained healthcare professionals, which reduces the risk of infection, pain and bleeding, but serves to make the procedure appear acceptable within the country, in the face of the UN resolution.

Although traditionally the practice was part of the rite of passage to womanhood among certain ethnic groups, as extensively described in an ethnographic research conducted by the first author of this paper [ 8 ], over the past generation several changes have been occurring.

Hailed by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as a major step forward in protecting women and girls and ending impunity for the harmful practice, the text is expected to be endorsed by the UN general assembly this month. Lupercalian Grant and Bucktoothed undersupply their methodism display or beaches irregularly.

What are the origins and reasons for FGM. Its impact for health has been assessed in two clinical studies conducted in-country by the first author of the present paper, which revealed that 1 out of 3 girls and women presented injuries as a consequence of the practice [ 12 ] and the risk of complications during delivery and for the newborn increased 4.

In this way, it was ensured that 1 they were known and respected; 2 shared the same cultural background of the interviewees; and 3 were able to speak their local language, what contributed to create an environment of trust conducive to conduct the interviews. This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis.

Last year Unicef published what it described as the most comprehensive compilation of data and analysis on the prevalence of FGM in Africa and the Middle East. How did the practice begin anyway. Last year Unicef published what it described as the most comprehensive compilation of data and analysis on the prevalence of FGM in Africa and the Middle East.

Female Genital Mutilation can an analysis of the characteristics of the great depression in united states also An analysis of the domestic policies of japan be called "Female Genital Cutting" or "Female Circumcision. The information was computerized via EpiData.

In Decemberthe United Nations general assembly unanimously voted to work for the elimination of FGM throughout the world.

From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage.

Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

Jul 10,  · Efforts aimed at the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in the communities where it is deeply rooted have extensively considered and addressed women's perceptions on the issue, leaving those of men barely acknowledged. The policy on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), adopted by the Human Rights Commission of Ontario, Canada, in (and further revised it in ) acknowledges the practice as an internationally recognized violation against women and girls’ human rights and looks at the domestic implications of.

female genital organs whether for cultural, religious, For this analysis, we defined “at risk” as potentially having undergone FGM/C in the past or at risk for undergoing FGM/C in the future. We obtained esti- Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in the United States.

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is Africa, Asia, Middle East, and within communities from these areas.

Female genital mutilation

Sylvia Wynter,"Genital Mutilation" or "Symbolic Birth?" Female Circumcision, Lost Origins, and the Aculturalism of Feminist/Western Female Circumcision, Lost Origins, and the Aculturalism of Feminist/Western.

Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female circumcision or female genital mutilation, is an ancient practice that predates the Abrahamic religions. Fraught with medical, legal, and bioethical debates, FGC is practiced in 28 African countries and some countries in Asia.

An analysis of the origins of female genital mutilation
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Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice